PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF WEED SCIENCE RESEARCH (Weed Science Society of Pakistan: WSSP) 2021-07-12T22:58:29-04:00 Dr. Muhammad Ishfaq Khan Open Journal Systems <p>In 1987. under the chairmanship of Dr. Rashid Ahmad Shad, the then Director Weed Science Research Institute (NARC), Islamabad; few veterans in weed science gathered and felt the need of establishing professional society with the name Pakistan Weed Science Society (PWSS). The pioneers of this concept were Prof. Dr. Mir Hatam, UAP. Mr. Ghulam Sarwar Khan, ARI, Tarnab, Peshawar, Dr. Sadruudin Siddiqui and Mrs. Shahida Khalid from NARC, Islamabad, Late Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahamd and Prof. Dr. Zahid Ata Cheema from UAF Dr. Asghar Jalis and Mr. Karim Bakhsh from AARI, Faisalabad and Mr. Abdul Sattar Larik from ARI, Tando Jam, Sindh. All of them unanimously supported the idea to establish Pakistan Weed Science Society (PWSS) with Dr. Rashid Ahmad Shad, as its pioneer President. He was subsequently succeeded by Late Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahmad. The society regularly held conferences and started publishing the Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research in 1988. Under the sponsorship of USAID, Pak-Indo-US Weed Control Workshop was held on March 11-14, 1987 at NARC, Islamabad was a prominent achievement. A further boost in weed science was again by USAID, sponsoring the Coordinated Program in weeds throughout Pakistan under which Late Larry Burril and Mr. Myron Shenk from International Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University USA, trained weed scientists from all over Pakistan at NARC. With the creation of Weed Science Department at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, the head office of the Society as well as its journal was shifted to Peshawar. Meanwhile, the name of the society was changed as the Weed Science Society of Pakistan (WSSP). The society was registered under the Societies Act of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, declaration of the journal was officially sought and website of the society viz.&nbsp;<a href=""></a>&nbsp;was launched. The Society has so far organized 12 conferences (both national and international) at various venues in Pakistan. The society is also credited to hold 22nd&nbsp;APWSS Conference, from the forum of this society during 2010 in Lahore Pakistan, as Prof. Dr. Khan Bahadar Marwat Ex-President and Prof. Dr. Gul Hassan Ex-Secretary of the APWSS were and currently are the President and General Secretary of WSSP.&nbsp;</p> MULTIVARIATE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF WEEDS OF CHICKPEA, MUSTARD AND WHEAT CROP FIELDS OF TEHSIL ISAKHEL, DISTRICT MIANWALI (PUNJAB), PAKISTAN 2021-06-30T07:58:59-04:00 Dr. Sohaib Muhammad <p>Multivariate analysis through Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) was conducted to study the phytosociological attributes of weeds of some selected crop fields of chickpea, mustard and wheat of Tehsil Isa Khel, District Mianwali, Punjab. Forty one (41) weed species were collected from the study area belonging to twenty one (21) different families. Twenty four weed species found in chickpea, twenty five in mustard and twenty nine in wheat crop fields. Sixteen weed species were common in three crops. Family Poaceae and Astraceae had maximum weed species i.e. 7 and 6 species respectively followed by Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Papaveraceae, Zygophyllaceae and so on.<em> Asphodelus tenuifolius</em>, <em>Medicago monantha </em>and<em> Carthamus oxycantha </em>are frequently occurring weeds relative to others. Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) was performed on the percentage cover basis which divided the weed species into groups, sub groups, associations and sub associations.</p> 2021-06-30T07:01:27-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF PURPLE NUTSEDGE ALLELOPATHY AND OTHER METHODS ON WEED MANAGEMENT IN BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.) 2021-06-30T07:58:59-04:00 Jay Kumar Sootaher <p>This research was made for the comparison of the effects of purple nutsedge allelopathy and other methods on the weed management in barely at Students’ Experimental Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam for weed as well as barely parameters having eight treatments with three replications. The data revealed that maximum weed number (45.6 m<sup>-2</sup>), weed fresh weight (20.6 g m<sup>-2</sup>), weed dry weight (6.3 g m<sup>-2</sup>) was observed under T<sub>1</sub>= No weeding (control). However, the maximum weed control (91.3%) was recorded under T<sub>7</sub>= Puma super 75 EW at 0.625 L ha<sup>-1</sup>, 50 reduced (30 DAS) + Purple nutsedge water extract at 15 L ha<sup>-1 </sup>(45 DAS). The barley crop results revealed that maximum tillers (355.6 m<sup>-2</sup>), plant height (106.3 cm), spike length (11.5 cm), grains spike<sup>-2</sup> (47.3), seed index (51 g), biological yield (11737 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), grain yield (4493 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and harvest index (41.9%) was recorded under T<sub>7</sub>= Puma super 75 EW at 0.625 L ha<sup>-1</sup> 50 % reduced (30 DAS) + Purple nutsedge water extract at 15 L ha<sup>-1 </sup>(45 DAS). Hence, current results manifested that proper application of puma super 75 EW at 0.625 L ha<sup>-1</sup> 50 % reduced (30 DAS) + Purple nutsedge water extract at 15 L ha<sup>-1</sup> (50 DAS) produce maximum growth and yield parameters of barley crop. So, it was suggested that application of puma super 75 EW at 0.625 L ha<sup>-1</sup>, 50 % reduced (30 DAS) + Purple nutsedge water extract at 15 L ha<sup>-1 </sup>(45 DAS) apply for getting higher yield (4493 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) of barley crop. It was finalized that this study will be very fruitful for the future progress of barley production.</p> 2021-06-30T07:04:40-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE ALLELOPATHICITY OF RED SPRANGLETOP (Leptochloa chinensis L.) AGAINST GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF RICE (Oryza sativa L.) 2021-07-06T00:53:23-04:00 Muhammad Sikander Hayyat Muhammad Ehsan Safdar Muhammad Mansoor Javaid <p>Red sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis L.) is a problematic weed of aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) that greatly reduces in yield. The laboratory studies were undertaken to confirm allelopathicity of its plant leachates and soil-decomposition plant residues towards emergence and seedling growth of rice. In first experiment, aqueous extracts from various plant parts of red sprangletop (stem, root, leaves, flower and entire plant) at their 5% (w/v) concentration were applied to germinating rice seeds. In second experiment, soil-decomposed red sprangletop plant residues of variable concentrations (2, 4 and 6% w/w) were used as germination media for rice. Among plant parts, red sprangletop leaves showed maximum allelopathic effect by fully inhibiting the germination of rice while its stem could be positioned at second situation as it caused 60, 73, 84.13 and 86 % reductions in germination percentage, germination index, seedling length and seedling dry biomass of rice as compared with control, respectively. This treatment also resulted in maximum delays in mean germination time (up to 4.80 days) and days taken to 50% germination (up to 4.40 days) of rice. The highest concentrated (6%) soil-decomposed plant residue of red sprangletop significantly diminished the germination percentage, germination index, seedling length and seedling vigor index that were 35.13, 23.26 and 41.61% lower than control. It very well may be presumed that liquid concentrates of leave and stem soil-decomposed plant residues of 6% concentration had different kind of allelochemicals that inhibited the germination, seedling growth and development of rice.</p> 2021-06-30T07:06:33-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PALYNOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF WEEDY MELLIFEROUS (BEE VISITED) PLANTS USING LIGHT MICROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES FROM SOUTHERN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN 2021-06-30T07:58:59-04:00 Fawad Khan khushdil khan shabir ahmad <p>Pollen morphology of 10 different weedy bee foraged plants belong to 10 various families from Southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa were collected, identified and studied using light microscopy (LM). The plants were <em>Asphodelus tenuifolius</em>, <em>Euphorbia helioscopia,</em><em> Parthenium hysterophorus, Rhazya stricta, Datura innoxia, Eruca sativa, Convolvulus arvensis, Anagallis arvensis, Galium aparine, </em>and <em>Anethum</em>&nbsp;<em>graveolens.</em> Slides for Light microscopic studies were prepared with the help of acetic acid, glycerin jelly and anthers of flowers. Pollen grain recorded ranged from monocolpate to hexacolporate and from psilate to echinate which were important systematic significance. Pollen size, shape, P/E ratio, exine thickness, number of colpi, number of pores, equatorial diameter, polar diameter, colpus width,&nbsp; colpus length, spines number, length and width of spines were examined with the help of light microscopy and all these values were analyzed statistically using software&nbsp; SPSS. This research provide a data to the optimal utilization of bee foraged weed plants by honeybees and identification of bee flora for the beekeeping business and honey production. Results revealed that weedy melliferous flora of study area is very helpful for botanical origin, geographical origin of bee species and adulterations found in honey.</p> 2021-06-30T07:17:07-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## GC-MS EXAMINATION OF METHANOLIC FLOWER EXTRACT OF Cirsium arvense 2021-06-30T07:58:59-04:00 Malik Fiaz Hussain Ferdosi Iqra Haider Khan Arshad Javaid Muhammad Faraz Ahmad Fardosi <p><em>Cirsium arvense</em> (L.) Scop., commonly known as creeping thistle, is a weed of Asteraceae. This study was undertaken to explore various phytoconstituents present in flower of this weed. To achieve this goal, the dried flowers of this weed were soaked in methanol for one week and filtered. This methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis and 7 compounds were identified. These included olean-12-en-3-ol, acetate, (3β)- (63.87%), lanosta-8,24-dien-3-ol, acetate, (3β)- (12.12%), β-amyrin (6.19%), γ-sitosterol (6.09%), α-amyrin (5.24%), stigmasterol (3.29%) and carbonic acid, 2-ethylhexyl heptadecyl ester (3.16%). Literature survey showed that these compounds possess anti-inflamatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant and/or anticancer activities.</p> 2021-06-30T07:17:49-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS IN METHANOLIC FLOWER EXTRACT OF Ageratum conyzoides 2021-06-30T07:58:59-04:00 Malik Fiaz Hussain Ferdosi Arshad Javaid Iqra Haider Khan Muhammad F. A. Ferdosi Ayesha Munir <p>In order to find out various bioactive compounds in flowers of <em>Ageratum conyzoides, </em>a weed of the family Asteraceae, the dried powdered flowers were extracted in analytical grade methanol and the extract was examined by GC-MS. In total, eight constituents were identified. The predominant compound in the extract was precocene II (59.50%). Three moderately abundant compounds included ethanone, 1-(7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-6-yl)- (9.77%), precocene I (8.61%) and caryophyllene (7.60%). Three compounds namely (E)-β-famesene (4.23%), β-cubebene (4.19%) and 1-nonadecene (4.07%) were categorized as less abundant. The eighth compounds phytol was the least abundant one with peak are of 1.99%. The literature survey showed that most of the identified compounds possessed various biological properties such as aphid repellant, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial and/or anti-inflammatory.</p> 2021-06-30T07:20:32-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inhibitory impact of Daraikh (Melia Azedarach) leaves litter on wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedling 2021-06-30T07:58:59-04:00 Iqtidar Hussain <p>A biological phenomenon by which one plant releases some chemicals in the environment that affect the rate of germination, its seedling emergence and physiology and overall growth of neighboring plants is called allelopathy. The significance of study was checked allelopathic phytochemical potential of Daraikh (<em>Melia Azedarach</em> L.) leaves on Wheat. Leaves litter were used to examine the allelopathic effects of Daraikh (<em>Melia Azedarach</em>) at five concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 g, control) parameters studied germination percentage (%), Speed of germination, plant height (cm), root length (cm), Shoot length (cm), coleoptile length (cm), Fresh weight (g) and dry weight (g), Tiller (plant<sup>-1</sup>) and chlorophyll content (µ cm<sup>-2</sup>) of <em>Triticum aestivum. </em>All concentration of Leaves litter of<em> Melia Azedarach</em> showed pronounced inhibitory effect on all parameters of <em>Triticum aestivum. Melia Azedarach</em> exerted phytotoxic influence on <em>Triticum aestivum</em> at initial growth stages. <em>Melia Azedarach </em>exhibited a significant negative impact on germination of <em>Triticum aestivum</em> at 100, 200, 300, 400 g litter of leaves than control (Sterilized soil) repectively. <em>Melia Azedarach </em>halted the coleoptile length of <em>Triticum aestivum</em> @ 400 g leaves litter. Powdered leaves of <em>Melia Azedarach </em>in clay loam soil appeared to have strong allelopathic inhibition under maximum concentrations on growth and germination of <em>Triticum aestivum.</em> Hence, <em>Melia Azedarach </em>proved a strong allelopathic plant that should be planted aside from field to avoid harmful impacts during early growth stages of <em>Triticum aestivum</em>.</p> 2021-06-30T07:29:27-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A, The Evaluating Allelopathic potential of aqueous extracts of Sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) on emergence and seedling growth of Red rice (Oryza punctata) 2021-06-30T07:58:59-04:00 Bilal Ahmad Khan <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><em>Chemical weed control method caused environmental hazards and residual effects in crops and soil. Alternate approach to control weeds is getting attentions in sustainable production system. Use of aqueous extracts of weed is getting scientific attention as eco-friendly alternative to chemical herbicides especially under scenario of fast increasing herbicide resistance in weeds. To investigate the herbicidal potential of aqueous extract of winter weed </em><em>of Sonchus oleraceus L. (Sow thistle) </em><em>on summer weed </em><em>Oryza punctate L. (red rice) seed emergence and initial seedling growth, a study was planned. In this study, seeds of O. punctate were incubated in seven concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4, and 8%) of different parts i.e. leaves, stem, flower of S. oleraceus. All the tested concentrations of various plant parts of S. oleraceus significantly inhibited the mean emergence time, emergence index, emergence percentage (%), time taken to 50% emergence as well as growth of O. punctata weed. However, maximum mean emergence time (5.26 days), minimum germination index (1.69), germination percentage (40%), root length (2.04 cm), shoot length (5.71 cm), fresh weight (59 g), dry weight (4.06 g) was noted at 8% concentration with fruit aqueous extract of S. oleraceus. Seed of O. punctata take maximum time to complete 50% emergence (3.33 days) under control where we applied distilled water. Results suggested fruit extract of S. oleraceus at 8% concentration can be used potential bio-herbicide for the control of O. punctate.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Key words</em></strong><em>: </em><em>Chemical, eco-friendly, herbicidal potential, </em><em>fruit extract</em></p> 2021-06-30T07:30:24-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploring different weeds management practices in wheat 2021-06-30T07:58:59-04:00 Muhamamd Arif <p>Frequent utilization of herbicides has caused ecological and health complications for human beings as well as for animals. Moreover, its unwise application also developed resistance in some weed species against the herbicides. Therefore, a field investigation was planned to assess the effect of multi-approached weed suppression in wheat at Reclamation Research Station, 7/3-L Ahmad Pur Sial District Jhang during Rabi 2019-20. Experimental treatment was comprised of two wheat cultivars i.e. Ujala 2016 and Faisalabad 2008 and seven weeds control approaches i.e. hand weeding, organic mulching, eucalyptus extract, neem extract, clodinafop, bromoxynil + MCPA and clodinafop + bromoxynil + MCPA including control. Results of the experiment showed that hand weedings, combined application of clodinafop + bromoxynil + MCPA and mulching significantly reduced the weeds density, fresh and dry weight of weeds. However, covering the soil surface with the organic mulch may have a great impact on the growth and yield-contributing attributes, hence produced maximum grain yield.</p> 2021-06-30T07:31:27-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PHYTODIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF WEED SPECIES OF SUFAID SUNG, PESHAWAR 2021-06-30T07:58:59-04:00 haroon khan <p>Field surveys were carried out to assess the phytodiversity, phenology, leaf size, leaf shape, life form and ethnobotany of weed flora of village Sufaid Sung, Peshawar from March 2017 to June 2019. Overall, 95 species have been reported associated with 31 families. Dominant families were Poaceae (22 species), Asteraceae (10 species) followed by Amaranthaceae and Papilionaceae (6 species each), Brassicaceae and Polygonaceae (5 species each), Euphorbiaceae and Solanaceae (4 species), Apiaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cyperaceae, Malvaceae and Verbenaceae added 2 species, Chenopodiaceae and Convolvulaceae contributed 3 species, Apiaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cyperaceae, Malvaceae and Verbenaceae added 2 species while the rest of 16 families contributed a single species each. The dominant life form was therophytes (76 species) followed by hemicryptophytes (11 species) and geophytes (8 species). Leaf size of the flora showed that the most dominant leaf size class was mesophyll (38 species) followed by macrophyll and microphyll (18 species each), nanopohyll (15 species) and leptophyll (5 species) while a single aphyllous. Simple leaf species were 68 while 26 species had dissected leaves. This study shows a detailed phytodiversical situation of weeds that may be important as reference work for future ethnobotanical, ecological, weed management and conservational studies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-06-30T07:39:30-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A, The Allelopathic effects of Papavare somniferum on germination and initial seedling growth of Echinochloa cruss-galli 2021-06-30T07:58:59-04:00 Bilal Ahmad Khan Muhammad Ather Nadeem Muhammad Ather Nadeem Sadia Ahmad Afzal Rizwan Maqbool Aneela Nijabat Muhammad Ikram <p><em>Weeds are unwanted plants in crop that can be control by different methods among them use of aqueous extract of crop is an imperative method. To investigate the allopathic potential of aqueous extract of winter crop </em><em>Papavare somniferum (opium)</em><em> on summer weed </em><em>Echinochloa cruss-galli (barnyard grass) laboratory experiments were conducted. The experiment coomprised seven concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4, and 8%) of different plant parts i.e., leaves, stem and flower of P. somniferumwere. All the tested concentrations and plant parts of P. somniferum significantly reduced mean emergence time, germination index, germination percentage, time to 50% germination as well as well growth of E. cruss-galliweed. However, maximum mean emergence time (9.07 days), time to 50% germination (3.67 days) was noted at leaves and stem extract, respectively. Application of aqueous extract of stem at 8% concentration resulted in greatest time to complete 50% germination (5.42 days) and lowest fresh weight (6.28 g), dry weight (1.00 g) and root length (0.33 cm) of E. cruss-galli. Whereas leaf extract at 8% concentration produces less shoot length (1.13 cm) and more emergence time (9.18 days). Lowest emergence percentage (6.67%) and germination index (0.89) were produced by aqueous extract of fruit at 8% concentration. On the basis of this experiment, it can be concluded that higher concentration (8%) of stem extract of P. somniferumwas used to biologically control the infestation of E. cruss-galli weed.</em></p> 2021-06-30T07:43:55-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## FIRST RECORD AND RE-DISCRIPTION OF CARPOCORIS PUDICUS (PODA 1761) 2021-07-12T22:58:29-04:00 Reshma sahito <p><strong>ABSTRACT. </strong></p> <p><em>Carpocoris pudicus</em> Poda (1761) are small sized stink bugs belonging to order Heteroptera. (Carpocorini). The species first time collected in Hyderabad Sindh during 2015. The <em>Carpocoris Pudicus </em>causes a remarkable loss to different crops and weed leaves and seeds i.e., vegetables and crops were tomatoes, coriander, wheat, rice, maize, pulses, and weeds. A total of 191 individuals 67 males and 124 females were collected from four localities of Hyderabad region. The Body ochreous colour, with stripes on head, pronotum, scutellum and stripped connexiva. The species is redescribed on the basis of morphological characters, especially colour, shape of head, pronotum, scutellum, antennal segments, and internal male genitalia (Pygophore, paramere and aedeagus) and female genitalia (terminalia and spermatheca). A general description of <em>C. pudicus</em> is also given. The species of Carpocorini (stink bugs) is new record of Hyderabad region.</p> 2021-06-30T07:47:50-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##