https://www.wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/issue/feed PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF WEED SCIENCE RESEARCH (Weed Science Society of Pakistan: WSSP) 2021-06-09T22:25:02-04:00 Dr. Muhammad Ishfaq Khan editor@wssp.org.pk Open Journal Systems <p>In 1987. under the chairmanship of Dr. Rashid Ahmad Shad, the then Director Weed Science Research Institute (NARC), Islamabad; few veterans in weed science gathered and felt the need of establishing professional society with the name Pakistan Weed Science Society (PWSS). The pioneers of this concept were Prof. Dr. Mir Hatam, UAP. Mr. Ghulam Sarwar Khan, ARI, Tarnab, Peshawar, Dr. Sadruudin Siddiqui and Mrs. Shahida Khalid from NARC, Islamabad, Late Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahamd and Prof. Dr. Zahid Ata Cheema from UAF Dr. Asghar Jalis and Mr. Karim Bakhsh from AARI, Faisalabad and Mr. Abdul Sattar Larik from ARI, Tando Jam, Sindh. All of them unanimously supported the idea to establish Pakistan Weed Science Society (PWSS) with Dr. Rashid Ahmad Shad, as its pioneer President. He was subsequently succeeded by Late Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahmad. The society regularly held conferences and started publishing the Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research in 1988. Under the sponsorship of USAID, Pak-Indo-US Weed Control Workshop was held on March 11-14, 1987 at NARC, Islamabad was a prominent achievement. A further boost in weed science was again by USAID, sponsoring the Coordinated Program in weeds throughout Pakistan under which Late Larry Burril and Mr. Myron Shenk from International Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University USA, trained weed scientists from all over Pakistan at NARC. With the creation of Weed Science Department at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, the head office of the Society as well as its journal was shifted to Peshawar. Meanwhile, the name of the society was changed as the Weed Science Society of Pakistan (WSSP). The society was registered under the Societies Act of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, declaration of the journal was officially sought and website of the society viz.&nbsp;<a href="http://www.wssp.org.pk/">www.wssp.org.pk/</a>&nbsp;was launched. The Society has so far organized 12 conferences (both national and international) at various venues in Pakistan. The society is also credited to hold 22nd&nbsp;APWSS Conference, from the forum of this society during 2010 in Lahore Pakistan, as Prof. Dr. Khan Bahadar Marwat Ex-President and Prof. Dr. Gul Hassan Ex-Secretary of the APWSS were and currently are the President and General Secretary of WSSP.&nbsp;</p> https://www.wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/864 Assessing allelopathic potential of Sonchus oleraceus L. (milk thistle) on germination and seedling growth of Oryza puncta 2021-06-09T22:25:02-04:00 Bilal Ahmad Khan bilalahmadkhan678@gmail.com Saima Anwar bilalahmadkhan678@gmail.com Rizwan Maqbool Maqbool drman@uaf.edu.pk Muhammad Mohsin Amin bilalahmadkhan678@gmail.com Muhammad Mansoor Javaid bilalahmadkhan678@gmail.com Amjed Ali bilalahmadkhan678@gmail.com Durrishahwar . bilalahmadkhan678@gmail.com <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><em>Aqueous extracts of plants are used to control weeds and having no hazards to environment and are inexpensive. Present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extracts of Sonchus oleraceus L. on the Oryza punctata L. emergence and initial seedling growth. It consists of aqueous extract of leaves, stem and fruit of S. oleraceus at varying concentrations 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4 and 8 % (w/v) along with a distilled water control. The allelochemicals present in the aqueous extracts showed stimulatory, inhibitory and hormetic responses depending upon the concentration and the plant part. Results directed that maximum mean emergence time (5.26 days) and minimum germination index (1.67), germination percentage (40%), seedling fresh weight (59 g) and dry weight (8 g) of O. punctata were examined with 8% aqueous extract of S. oleraceus fruit. However, 4% aqueous extract of S. oleraceus fruit produced minimum root length (5.71). On the basis this experiment it was concluded that 8% aqueous extract of S. oleraceus fruit can be used for controlling O. punctata weed.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Aqueous extract, environment, allelochamicals, hermetic response, stimulatory</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><em>Aqueous extracts of plants are used to control weeds and having no hazards to environment and are inexpensive. Present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extracts of Sonchus oleraceus L. on the Oryza punctata L. emergence and initial seedling growth. It consists of aqueous extract of leaves, stem and fruit of S. oleraceus at varying concentrations 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4 and 8 % (w/v) along with a distilled water control. The allelochemicals present in the aqueous extracts showed stimulatory, inhibitory and hormetic responses depending upon the concentration and the plant part. Results directed that maximum mean emergence time (5.26 days) and minimum germination index (1.67), germination percentage (40%), seedling fresh weight (59 g) and dry weight (8 g) of O. punctata were examined with 8% aqueous extract of S. oleraceus fruit. However, 4% aqueous extract of S. oleraceus fruit produced minimum root length (5.71). On the basis this experiment it was concluded that 8% aqueous extract of S. oleraceus fruit can be used for controlling O. punctata weed.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Aqueous extract, environment, allelochamicals, hermetic response, stimulatory</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><em>Aqueous extracts of plants are used to control weeds and having no hazards to environment and are inexpensive. Present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extracts of Sonchus oleraceus L. on the Oryza punctata L. emergence and initial seedling growth. It consists of aqueous extract of leaves, stem and fruit of S. oleraceus at varying concentrations 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4 and 8 % (w/v) along with a distilled water control. The allelochemicals present in the aqueous extracts showed stimulatory, inhibitory and hormetic responses depending upon the concentration and the plant part. Results directed that maximum mean emergence time (5.26 days) and minimum germination index (1.67), germination percentage (40%), seedling fresh weight (59 g) and dry weight (8 g) of O. punctata were examined with 8% aqueous extract of S. oleraceus fruit. However, 4% aqueous extract of S. oleraceus fruit produced minimum root length (5.71). On the basis this experiment it was concluded that 8% aqueous extract of S. oleraceus fruit can be used for controlling O. punctata weed.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Aqueous extract, environment, allelochamicals, hermetic response, stimulatory</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-03-29T11:10:45-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/869 Isolation of leaf and root extracts from Allium sativum and Mentha piperita plants; evaluation of their antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activities in-vitro 2021-06-09T22:25:02-04:00 Muhammad Rafiq rafiqknu@gmail.com Farrukh Avais farrukhavais@gmail.com Anser Ali anser.zoology@must.edu.pk Hamza Javed hamzajaved.mlt@gmail.com Muhammad Saleem saleemqau@gmail.com Tehreem Tahir tahreemtahir90@gmail.com <p><strong>Abstract-</strong>Tyrosinase is a key enzyme of melanogenesis which determines the mammalian skin, hair and eye colour. Hyper-pigmentation leads to various skin disorders like melasma, sunspots, age spots and freckles. Moreover, abnormal skin pigmentation is a serious aesthetic concern which leads to psychosocial problems. Thus to achieve melanin inhibition, inhibition of tyrosinase might be an effective approach. To this end we prepared methanolic (MeOH) extracts from leaves and roots of <em>Allium sativum </em>(AS) and<em> Mentha piperita</em> (MP), which were further processed for 1:1 fractional distillation to prepare methanolic n-hexane (MeOH_n-Hx), methanolic ethyl acetate (MeOH_EA) and methanolic chloroform (MeOH_CHCl<sub>3</sub>) extracts, aiming to evaluate tyrosinase and anti-oxidant activities <em>in-vitro</em>. Our results confirmed that all MeOH-crude AS and MP extracts showed significant anti-oxidant activity with IC<sub>50 </sub>values ranging from 0.05 ± 0.2 mg/ml to 4.3 ± 2.3mg/ml. Moreover, AS and MP all 16 extracts have significant anti-tyrosinase activity with IC<sub>50 </sub>range from 0.014 ± 0mg/ml to 1.205 ± 0.07mg/ml. Interestingly, AS leaf MetOH_EA, AS leaf MetOH_CHCl<sub>3</sub>, AS root MetOH_EA and MP leaf MetOH_CHCl<sub>3</sub> showed significant anti-tyrosinase activity even higher than positive control kojic acid. AS leaf MetOH_CHCl<sub>3</sub> extract being the most potent among all tested extracts is proposed as potential candidate to treat tyrosinase rooted hyper-pigmentation in future.</p> 2021-03-29T11:17:23-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/870 A ALLELLOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANAL. AGAINST TRITICUM AESTIVUML., ZEA MAYSL., CICER ARIETINUML. 2021-06-09T22:25:02-04:00 TABASSUM YASEEN sciences111@yahoo.com <p>The present study was conducted to assess the allelopathic potential of <em>Zizypusmauritiana</em> against some crop species. Plant materials of <em>Z.mauritiana</em> were collected from Ahmad Abad District Karak and dried at room temperature (25-30˚C). Allelopathic studies conducted by using aqueous extracts from various parts including mature leaves, bark, fruit&nbsp; rain water and mulching in various experiments invariably retarded the germination, plumule, radical growth, fresh and dry weight of <em>Trictium aestivm</em>, <em>Zea mays</em>, and <em>Cicer arietinum</em>., used as a test species. The aqueous extracts obtained after 48 h were more inhibitory than 24h. Leaves were more toxic than fruit and bark. Rain water and mulching experiments also proved to be inhibitory. It is suggested that the various assayed parts of <em>Z.muritiana</em>have strong allelopathic potential at least against the tested species. Further investigation is required to see its allelopathic behavior under field condition against its associated species and to identify the toxic principle.</p> 2021-03-29T11:26:21-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/874 WEED COMMUNITY ANALYSIS IN MAIZE CROP IN NATURAL CLIMATE OF KHAIRPUR DISTRICT, PAKISTAN 2021-06-09T22:25:02-04:00 Naeema Khatoon Khaskheli naeemakhtoon@gmail.com Muzafar Hussain Sirohi muzafar.sirohi@salu.edu.pk Abdul Razak MAhar dr.razakmahar@gmail.com Ameer Ahmed Mirbahar amirillahi@gmail.com Mumtaz Ali Saand mumtaz.saand@salu.edu.pk Mirza Hussain mirzasamo512@gmail.com <p>Weeds are the noxious plants that stunt growth and yield of many crops. This study recorded the community composition of weeds in maize crops grown at District Khairpur, Sindh Pakistan.&nbsp; The weeds were collected from the maize crops at three different localities using the quadrat method (60 quadrats/site). The species were identified and herbarium samples were preserved in Herbarium, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Sindh Pakistan, for future reference. The species community composition, habit, and life span were determined. The study confirmed 35 weed species belonging to 14 plant families. The weed community was dominated by the plant families Poaceae (8 spp.), Amaranthaceae (7 spp.), and Aizoaceae (3 spp.). The most frequent species with relatively higher densities include <em>Digera muricata</em> (Amaranthaceae), <em>Trianthema portulacastrum</em> (Aizoaceae), and <em>Corchorus olitorius</em> (Malvaceae). The weed community was dominated with annual herbs. The community composition among the study sites was highly comparable. The study found a lack of weed management practices across the sites.</p> 2021-03-29T11:31:28-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/891 EFFECT OF VARIOUS WATER REGIMES AND HERBICIDES ON THE RE-SPROUTING ABILITY OF COMMON REED RHIZOME FRAGMENTS 2021-06-09T22:25:02-04:00 Bakhtiar Gul bakhtiargul@aup.edu.pk <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Two separate experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various water regimes and herbicides on re-sprouting-ability of common reed rhizome fragments. Each experiment was laid-out in completely randomized design (CRD) having water levels and herbicides as treatments, replicated thrice. Five fragments of fresh rhizomes with active buds were placed in the soil in each pot for investigating the effect of various water regimes on re-sprouting of common reed. Sprouting were examined up to two months. While in the 2<sup>nd</sup> experiment post emergence herbicides were applied to the re-sprouts to check the efficacy of various herbicides against common reed management. Various water regimes affected the re-sprouting ability of common reed rhizomes. The lowest sprouting (6.66%) were noted for T8 (control) where no water was applied except at the time of placing the rhizomes in the pots, while maximum (96.66%) sprouting observed within (T3) water was applied from 5<sup>th</sup> to 7<sup>th</sup> weeks (5 times). While in the 2<sup>nd</sup> experiment herbicides significantly affected the re-sprouting ability, growth and biomass production of common reed and minimum re-sprouting and shoot biomass (3.33% and 6.00 g), respectively, were noted for fenoxaprop-p-ethyl as compared to control treatment (90.00% &nbsp;and 38.67 g) where no herbicide had been applied. Therefore it is concluded from the results that on either side from water regime T5 the re-sprouting ability decreases and buds mortality increases, which clearly indicates that common reed needs slightly moist soil to start the re-sprouting and do not need standing water during that period, while after re-sprouting it do needs water i.e. from 3<sup>rd</sup> weed onwards and dry conditions afterwards (T6-T8) cannot be tolerated. Therefore flooding common reed after cutting <a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a>for three weeks of draining and keeping them dry for 8 weeks can be used as cultural control method for common reed management, while in case of herbicides fenoxaprop-p-ethyl gives desirable results to control the common reed and to stop further infestation.</p> 2021-03-29T11:42:25-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/892 Maize MAIZE YIELD AS AFFECTED BY METHODS OF TILLAGE AND WEED MANAGEMEMNT 2021-06-09T22:25:02-04:00 Haseeb Ahmad haseeb@aup.edu.pk <p><sub>An experiment entitled: Maize yield as affected by methods of tillage and weed control methods was conducted at Agronomy Research Farms, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during summer 2016. The study was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement having four replications. Tillage practices 1) Chisel plough + rotavator 2) Mouldboard plough + rotavator 3) Cultivator + rotavator and 4) Rotavator were assigned to main plots. Weed management practices included 1) Control, 2) Hoeing 15 days after sowing 3) Hoeing 15 and 30 days after sowing 4) Hoeing 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing, and 4) Herbicide (nicosulfuron) were kept into the subplots. The results revealed that chisel plough + rotavator has significantly reduced weeds m-2 (122, 101 and 125 weeds m-2), weeds fresh weight (19.73 g m-2, 116.35 g m-2 and 252.56 g m-2) and weeds dry weight (6.83 g m-2, 38.69 g m-2 and 80.61 g m-2) at 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing, respectively. The operation of chisel plough + rotavator has produced tallest plants (221.22 cm) with maximum grain rows ear-1 (16), grain yield (3586 kg ha-1) and shelling percentage (78.14%). Among weed control methods, hoeing 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing revealed maximum plant height (226.41 cm), grain rows ear-1 (16), grain yield (3604&nbsp;kg ha-1) and shelling percentage (79.11%). All weed control methods have showed significant reduction in weeds m-2, weeds fresh weight and weeds dry weight. Interaction was also found significant for weeds m-2 at 60 DAS and grain yield of maize. Lowest weeds (56 weeds m-2) at 60 DAS and highest grain yield (4569 kg ha-1) was recorded when seedbed was prepared with chisel plough + rotavator with 3 hoeings (hoeing 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing). It is concluded that treatment of chisel plough + rotavator and hoeing 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing has significantly produced maximum grain yield of maize crop.<br></sub></p> 2021-03-29T11:47:21-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/915 eng English 2021-06-09T22:25:01-04:00 IMTIAZ KHAN khan imtiazkhan@aup.edu.pk <p>A field experiment was conducted at the new developmental farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar during rabi season 2016-17. A wheat variety Ata Habib was selected to be investigated to check its performance by adopting methods of sowing and mixed tank herbicides application. The experiment was arranged in split plot with randomized complete block (RCB) design and 4 replications to reduce the error of the results. For practical adaptation of the experiment, the sowing methods were presented as the main plots, while tank mixed herbicides were kept in the sub-plots to get good prominent results for possible positive differences among the treatments. The sub-plot size measured as 1.5 X 3 m while row to row distance was kept 30 cm. Data were recorded on weed density m<sup>-2</sup>, fresh and dry weed biomass (kg) , plant height (cm), spike length (cm), leaf area (cm) , number of tillers (m<sup>-2</sup>) , Number of grains spike<sup>-1</sup>, 1000 grain weight (g), biological yield (kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), and grain yield (kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), Harvest index (%). These data parameters were formally observed with great care to avoid any repetition or error of the data.&nbsp; &nbsp;Few noxious weeds were observed and recorded in the field viz. <em>Avena fatua, Anagallis arvensis, Euphorbia helioscopia, Phalaris minor, Poa annua, Medicago denticulata, Convolvulus arvensis, Coronopus didymus, Fumaria polymorpha, Melilotus parviflora, Chenopodium album</em> and <em>Rumex crispus</em>. The obtained results indicated that sowing methods were statistically significant for plant height, grains spike<sup>-1</sup>, 1000-grain weight and biological yield that showed a clear effectiveness of the recorded data parameters. In addition to this, herbicides applications were also were also statistically significant for all the parameters except grains spike<sup>-1</sup>, while the interaction of sowing methods and herbicides application were also non-significant. In sowing methods, line sowing provided satisfactory results. As general understandings various weeds were managed significantly through tank mixed herbicide applications with a ratio of 60-72% for broad leaf and grassy weeds respectively. Consequently the instant results provided 54% increased yield compared to the untreated treatments. Hence it is concluded that , line sowing in combination with tank mixed herbicides are more suitable for management of weeds in the wheat field and increased yield in the agro climatic conditions of Peshawar-Pakistan.</p> 2021-03-29T11:51:51-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/919 The Long horned beetles ( Cerambycidae: Coleoptera) with new records from Pakistan 2021-06-09T22:25:01-04:00 Waheed Ali Panhwar waheed.panhwar@salu.edu.pk Kamran Ahmed Pathan kkdurrani12@gmail.com Abdul Manan Shaikh amanan.shaikh@salu.edu.pk Safdar Ali Ujjan safdar.ujjan@salu.edu.pk Javed Ahmed Ujan javed.ujan@salu.edu.pk Khadim Hussain Memon khadim.memon@salu.edu.pk Irfan Ahmed Pathan waheed_ali_panhwar@hotmail.com Irfan Ahmed Pathan waheed_ali_panhwar@hotmail.com Shabana Mangi mangishabana52@gmail.com <p>The longhorn beetles belongs to family Cerambycidae. The beetles are present in almost all ecosystems, except the ocean and Polar Regions. They are most the important biological control agents into agro-ecosystems. The beetles&nbsp; help in the biological control they eat extensive assortments of tree dwelling, soil dwelling insects and also eat caterpillars, maggots, aphids, bug, ants, wasp. Long horned beetles were gathered from different sites (agricultural fields and their surrounding vegetation) of district Naushahro Feroze with insect net (7.79 cm in diameter and 49.9 cm in length) and hand picking. A of 234 specimens were captured from October 2018 to July 2019.&nbsp; The material was identified into 07 species out of 06 genera. Of which <em>Batocera rubus </em>(Linnaeus, 1758), New Record from Sindh<strong><em>,</em></strong><em> Batocera rufomaculata </em>(Charles De Geer, 1775), New Record from Sindh, <em>Apriona cinerea&nbsp;</em>(Chevrolat, 1852), New Record from Sindh, <em>Archopalus exoticus </em>(Sharp, 1905), New Record from Pakistan<em> Macrotoma crenata </em>(Fabricius,&nbsp;1801), New Record from Pakistan,<em> Prionus corpulantus </em>(Bates, 1878) New Record from Sindh, <em>Dorysthenes hugelii </em>(Redtenbacher, 1848), New Record from Pakistan. The highest ratio of specimens were recorded from Mehrabpur and lowest ratio of specimens were recorded from Moro.</p> 2021-03-29T11:55:51-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/926 ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF Chenopodium murale ROOT, A SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS 2021-06-09T22:25:01-04:00 Arshad Javaid arshad.iags@pu.edu.pk Syeda Fakehha Naqvi fakehha1@hotmail.com Iqra Haider Khan iqrahaider_khan@yahoo.com <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <em>Chenopodium murale</em> L. is a winter weed of Chenopodiaceae. In this study, bioactive compounds present in ethyl acetate fraction of root extract of <em>C. murale </em>were identified. The weed plants were collected from Jehlem, Pakistan. Its roots were dried, powdered and extracted in methanol. After evaporation of the solvent, the remaining extract was mixed in water and partitioned with <em>n-</em>hexane, chloroform and finally with ethyl acetate. The last fraction was analyzed through GC-MS that indicated the presence of 15 compounds. These included the three major compounds namely <em>o</em>-xylene (15.03%), cyclopentanol (13.42) and 2-hexanol (13.99%). The moderately and less abundant compounds were &nbsp;ethylbenzene (5.47); methyl acetate (6.00%); cholestrol (4.33%); 2-phenanthrenol (3.01%); cyclohexanone (5.32%); <em>p</em>-xylene (5.12%); furostan-3,26-diyl dibenzoate (3.29%); dihexyl phthalate (4.99%); tricosanoic acid (2.74%); dioctyl phthalate (4.99%), hexanal (3.05%) and ergostane (1.29%). Literature survey showed that 10 of the identified compounds exhibited various biological activities including antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer and antipsoriatic. Most of the compounds were antimicrobial in nature.</p> 2021-03-29T12:00:38-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/927 COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF FOUR ORGANIC SOLVENT FRACTIONS OF LEAF EXTRACT OF HEMP AGAINST Aspergillus versicolor 2021-06-09T22:25:01-04:00 Iqra Haider Khan iqrahaider_khan@yahoo.com Arshad Javaid arshad.iags@pu.edu.pk Nadeem Shad nadeem.iags@pu.edu.pk <p>The fungus <em>Aspergillus versicolor</em> is generally found on food products and produces sterigmatocystin, a carcinogenic and hepatotoxic mycotoxin. This study reports the usefulness of polar and non-polar fractions of methanolic extract of hemp (<em>Cannabis sativa</em> L.) leaves against this fungus<em>. </em>Dried leaves of hemp were soaked in methanol for two weeks. After filtration and evaporation, water was added to the residual and partitioned with <em>n-</em>hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and <em>n-</em>butanol. Different concentrations of each fraction were prepared which ranged from 1.562 to 200 mg mL<sup>-1</sup>. Antifungal activity was carried out in malt extract broth medium. In general, all the concentrations of the four organic solvent fractions significantly controlled the growth of <em>A. versicolor. </em>There was 71–82%, 59–82%, 65–80% and 69–82% decline in biomass of <em>A. versicolor</em> due to <em>n</em>-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and <em>n</em>-butanol fractions, respectively. It is concluded that different fractions of leaf extract of <em>C. sativa </em>has remarkable potential in controlling growth of <em>A. versicolor.</em></p> 2021-03-29T12:04:44-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/930 PROXIMATE, MACRO ELEMENTAL AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF SORBARIA TOMENTOSA 2021-06-09T22:25:01-04:00 Shabnam Javed shabnam.chem@pu.edu.pk Amna Shoaib amna.iags@pu.edu.pk Zaid Mehmood zaidmahmood@chem.pu.edu.pu <p><em>Sorbaria tomentosa</em> <em>(LindI.) of family Rosaceae, is a wild, medicinal, ornamental, large, woody plant locally known as “Karhee or Berre”, native to Pakistan. </em><em>Proximate composition gives important information to assess the suitability of medicinal flora or their extracts taken orally by the trivial communities. In the current study, different proximate parameters like carbohydrate, ash, protein, moisture content and fat, along with carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur were analyzed in whole plant of </em><em>S. tomentosa</em><em>. </em><em>The results revealed the occurrence of considerable proportion of carbohydrates (</em><em>52%) and </em><em>protein (</em><em>23.80%). </em><em>Moisture</em><em>, fat and </em><em>ash</em><em> contents were found in small content 6.25</em><em>, 2.02 and </em><em>0.20%, respectively. </em><em>Elemental analysis displayed the greater content of carbon (</em><em>44.92%) followed by content of </em><em>hydrogen (</em><em>6.16%)</em><em>, nitrogen (</em><em>5.17%)</em><em> and sulphur (</em><em>0.43%). GC-MS analysis of n-hexane fraction of S. tomentosa led to identification of five compounds viz., 3, 13-Dimethylpentadecanoic acid (1), 2, 4-Dimethyltetradecanoic acid (2), 2, 4-Heptadecadienoic acid; Etester (3), 2-Butylcyclopropanedodecanoic acid (4) and Heptadecanoic acid; Et ester (5). </em><em>Toxicity tests, further isolation and identification of active constituents of test weed could confirm the discovery of novel plant drugs and safety in administration.</em></p> 2021-03-29T12:08:21-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.wssp.org.pk/weed/ojs/index.php/pjwsr/article/view/932 IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC EVALUATION OF KARHEE WEED 2021-06-09T22:25:00-04:00 Shabnam Javed shabnam.chem@pu.edu.pk Amna Shoaib amna.iags@pu.edu.pk <p><em>Locally famous Karhee or Berre (Sorbaria tomentosa) exhibits medicinal value is large woody shrub indigenous to Pakistan. The present study examined the cytotoxic activities of S. tomentosa using methanolic extracts and fractions (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and water) against three cáncer cell lines (lung A-549, hepatocellular HepG2and urinary bladder EI-138). Cytotoxic assays were carried out with five different concentrations (0.05, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/mL) of methanolic extract and its sub fraction through MTT assay. Results revealed n-hexane and ethyl acetate fraction being the most potent against all test cancer cell lines with higher IC50 values. Both fractions also exhibited the maximum reduction in the cell viability in dose dependent manner. Preliminary results suggest the promising anticancer potential of n-hexane and ethyl acetate S. tomentosa against lung A-549, hepatocellular HepG2and urinary bladder EI-138 cell lines. Further studies are required to know the mechanism(s) involved in the cell death.</em></p> 2021-03-29T12:12:13-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##