PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF WEED SCIENCE RESEARCH (Weed Science Society of Pakistan: WSSP) <p>In 1987. under the chairmanship of Dr. Rashid Ahmad Shad, the then Director Weed Science Research Institute (NARC), Islamabad; few veterans in weed science gathered and felt the need of establishing professional society with the name Pakistan Weed Science Society (PWSS). The pioneers of this concept were Prof. Dr. Mir Hatam, UAP. Mr. Ghulam Sarwar Khan, ARI, Tarnab, Peshawar, Dr. Sadruudin Siddiqui and Mrs. Shahida Khalid from NARC, Islamabad, Late Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahamd and Prof. Dr. Zahid Ata Cheema from UAF Dr. Asghar Jalis and Mr. Karim Bakhsh from AARI, Faisalabad and Mr. Abdul Sattar Larik from ARI, Tando Jam, Sindh. All of them unanimously supported the idea to establish Pakistan Weed Science Society (PWSS) with Dr. Rashid Ahmad Shad, as its pioneer President. He was subsequently succeeded by Late Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahmad. The society regularly held conferences and started publishing the Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research in 1988. Under the sponsorship of USAID, Pak-Indo-US Weed Control Workshop was held on March 11-14, 1987 at NARC, Islamabad was a prominent achievement. A further boost in weed science was again by USAID, sponsoring the Coordinated Program in weeds throughout Pakistan under which Late Larry Burril and Mr. Myron Shenk from International Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University USA, trained weed scientists from all over Pakistan at NARC. With the creation of Weed Science Department at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, the head office of the Society as well as its journal was shifted to Peshawar. Meanwhile, the name of the society was changed as the Weed Science Society of Pakistan (WSSP). The society was registered under the Societies Act of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, declaration of the journal was officially sought and website of the society viz.&nbsp;<a href=""></a>&nbsp;was launched. The Society has so far organized 12 conferences (both national and international) at various venues in Pakistan. The society is also credited to hold 22nd&nbsp;APWSS Conference, from the forum of this society during 2010 in Lahore Pakistan, as Prof. Dr. Khan Bahadar Marwat Ex-President and Prof. Dr. Gul Hassan Ex-Secretary of the APWSS were and currently are the President and General Secretary of WSSP.&nbsp;</p> en-US (Dr. Muhammad Ishfaq Khan) (sibtain wahid) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 FLORISTIC INVENTORY, BIOLOGICAL SPECTRA AND INVASIVE FLORA OF TEHSIL UTMAN KHEL, DISTRICT BAJAUR, PAKISTAN <p><em>The flora of Tehsil Utman Khel, District Bajaur comprised of total 238 plant species belonging to 208 genera and 89 families.&nbsp; 59 species were identified as Non-native species. The dominant family was Poaceae (17 species) which was followed by Asteraceae (15 species), Papilionaceae Rosaceae (13 species each), and Solanaceae (10 species). Habit of flora was led by herbs (149 species, 62.6%) followed by shrubs (46 species, 20%) and trees (43 species, 18%).&nbsp; There were 177 wild species and 61 cultivated species. The leading life form were therophytes having 83 species and nanophanerophytes 49 species. Microphylls with 89 species, Mesophylls with 75 species and nanophylls with 43 species were the leading leaf size classes.&nbsp;Simple leaves (156 species, 65.55%) followed by compound leaves (18.91%), dissected leaves (10.51%) and needle leaves (3.78 %) were the documented leaf types. </em></p> Adnan Ali, Bakht Shah Zeb, Amjad Khan, Aminul Haq, Muhammad Abdul Haq, Irshad Ullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 02 Jan 2023 05:40:24 +0000 BIO-CONTROL OF BACTERIAL PATHOGENS WITH SOLVENT EXTRACTS OF WEEDS OF AMARANTHACEAE FAMILY <p>Biologically active substances have been isolated from weedy plants and investigated against bacterial pathogens for their antimicrobial potential. Medicinal value and biological functions of weeds are being tapped in order to find out novel substances against microorganisms which have developed resistance to current antibiotics and pesticides. Major objective of the current study was to investigate the antiphytopathogenic potential of the organic extracts of root, stem and leaves of weeds from the family Amaranthaceae (<em>Amaranthus viridis</em> L. and <em>chenopodium murale</em>) against seven bacterial species viz, <em>Bordetella pertussis, Kurthia gibsonii, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Azotobacter nigricans, Phenylobacterium immobile, Azomonas agilis, Enterobacter intermedius. </em>&nbsp;We observed significant results with the application of&nbsp;&nbsp; organic leaf and stem extracts on tested pathogens using well diffusion method whereas aqueous extracts exhibited lower efficacy. &nbsp;Methanolic stem extract (MSE) of <em>A. viridis </em>showed maximum inhibition against <em>Azotobacter nigricans </em>(40±0.08), <em>Enterobacter intermedius </em>(39±0.24), <em>Phenylobacterium immobile </em>(37±0.04), <em>Azomonas agilis </em>(34±0.19) respectively. Methanolic root extract (MLE) of <em>A. viridis</em> were more effective to inhibit the growth of<em> Bordetella pertussis </em>(42±0.24), <em>Kurthia gibsonii</em> (37±0.09). whereas methanolic leaf extracts were significantly effective against<em> Burkholderia pseudomallei </em>(40±0.13). Significant growth inhibition was also observed in bacterial strains when treated with methanolic stem extract (MSE) of <em>C</em><em>. murale.&nbsp; </em>against <em>Azotobacter nigricans </em>(38±0.15), <em>Bordetella pertussis </em>(36±0.24) and <em>Phenylobacterium immobile </em>(34±0.04) respectively. Methanolic leaf extracts of <em>C. murale </em>showed maximum inhibition against <em>Kurthia gibsonii </em>(40±0.19),<em> Burkholderia pseudomallei</em> (36±0.19) and <em>Enterobacter intermedius (</em>38±0.08) and root extracts was effective against <em>Azomonas agilis </em>(30±0.19). Both of the species exhibited diverse biochemical compounds in aqueous and organic extracts. Results obtained clearly indicates that antimicrobial constituents of <em>Amaranthus viridis</em> L. and <em>Chenopodium murale</em> weeds can be screened for the isolation of alternative antibacterial compounds to develop novel biopesticides against resistant bacteria.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Uzma Bashir, Muhammad Afzal Naeem, Midrar Ullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF WEEDS ON MEDICINAL PLANTS <p>A pot experiment was carried out in 2020 to assess the allelopathic influence of various weed extracts on different medicinal plants. The experiment was laid out in a two factorial CR design replicated three times. Factor A comprised of medicinal plants viz. <em>Linum usitatissimum</em>, <em>Nigella sativa</em>, <em>Foeniculum vulgare</em>, <em>Plantago ovata</em>,&nbsp;and <em>Matricaria chamomilla</em>; while factor B included aqueous extracts of <em>Silybum marianum, Parthenium hysterophorus</em>, and <em>Broussonetia papyrifera</em>, along with a herbicide (atrazine) and a control. Data was recorded on germination percentage, root and shoot lengths (cm), fresh and dry biomasses (g), antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, chlorophyll content, and antibacterial activity. The results showed that extracts of weeds had stimulatory effects on the growth of medicinal plant species, a phenomenon called hormesis. The aqueous extracts of the tested weeds enhanced the seed germination and significantly affected all the parameters tested in the experiment. The highest shoot length was of <em>L.</em> <em>usitatissimum</em> treated with <em>S. marianum</em> extract and the lowest was recorded also in <em>L.</em> <em>usitatissimum</em> with atrazine application. Similarly, the root length of <em>L.</em> <em>usitatissimum</em> was highest under <em>P. hysterophorus</em> extract application and the lowest was again in <em>L.</em> <em>usitatissimum</em> under <em>B. papyrifera </em>extract. The highest fresh biomass was of <em>M. chamomilla</em> and lowest in <em>P. ovata</em> under <em>P. hysterophorus</em>. Similarly, dry biomass was found highest in <em>M. chamomilla</em> in control, while lowest was of <em>L. usitatissimum </em>under <em>B. papyrifera</em> treatment. The antioxidant content was maximum in <em>F. vulgare</em> under <em>B. papyrifera </em>and minimum in <em>P. ovata </em>under <em>Parthenium</em>. The total flavonoid content was on top in <em>F. vulgare</em> under <em>B. papyrifera</em> and the least flavonoid content was in <em>L. usitatissimum </em>under <em>Parthenium</em>. The total phenolic content was greatest in <em>M. chamomilla</em> under Parthenium and the lowest in <em>F. vulgare</em> treated with atrazine. Moreover, the greatest <em>Escherichia coli </em>content was found in <em>F. vulgare</em> under <em>B.</em> <em>papyrifera</em> the smallest in <em>M. chamomilla</em> under <em>Silybum </em>extract<em>.</em> The highest content of <em>Staphylo coccus</em> bacteria was in <em>N. sativa</em> under atrazine and lowest in <em>F. vulgare</em> under <em>S. marianum</em>. The Agro-bacterium activity was highest in <em>N. sativa </em>under control and lowest in <em>M. chamomilla</em> under atrazine. The <em>Citro bacter</em> was highest in <em>F. vulgare</em> treated with <em>B. papyrifera </em>while lowest in <em>P. ovata </em>under <em>P. hysterophorus</em>. The chlorophyll content was highest in <em>L. usitatissimum </em>and lowest in <em>P. ovata </em>under <em>S. marianum</em>.</p> Saad Jan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 VARIATIONS IN POPULATION DYNAMICS OF BEET ARMYWORM ON CABBAGE IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN <p><em>Spodoptera exigua</em> Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a multi-host serious global pest due around the world. In the current study, cabbage (<em>Brassica oleracea</em> L.) field populations of <em>S</em>. <em>exigua</em> were monitored in five different localities (Okara, Lahore, Faisalabad, Chiniot, and Sargodha) of Punjab, Pakistan through regular 10 days intervals on cabbage crop during 2018-2019. Results revealed the extensive distribution of <em>S. exigua</em> across Punjab, especially at a higher rate in Lahore Sarghoda and Faisalabad. Weather conditions (temperature and moisture) during the month of September in Punjab, Pakistan provided facilitate local population sources. Therefore, insect management protocol should be applied in the month of July, before the onset of the larval population.</p> Sumaira Maqsood, Amna Shoaib, Muhammad Ali, Shahbaz Ahmad, Asim Abbasi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 STUDY ON BIOTIC STRESS IN CEREALS AND NON-CEREALS THROUGH PHYTOTOXICITY CAUSED BY Chenopodium album <p>In agro-ecosystem of crops, weeds and microbes constitute biotic component of environment. These interactions are undoubtedly important factors in determining species distribution and abundance in an ecosystem. Weeds are a major threat to the agriculture system causing productivity decline. Chenopodium album belonging to family Chenopodiaceae is one of the five most widely distributed plants in the world. It is a common weed in about 40 crops in 47 countries of the world. Chenopodium album contains 8% saponins, 10% phenolic compounds and many secondary metabolites shared significant phytotoxicity on neighbouring plants. So, in vitro conditions in Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D.I.Khan, an experiment was launched to explore the phytotoxic (allelopathic) potential of weed Chenopodium album on cereals (barley, sorghum, maize and millet) and non-cereal (gram, canola, mung and sunflower). Aqueous extract of C. album (all parts mixed) and pure water (control) were used to decipher its effectiveness on the aforementioned crops. Data obtained by applying water extract of C. album on the above crops revealed its phytotoxicity on all crops. Parameters days to germination, germination count, germination (%), root/shoot sizes, plant size, fresh/dry weight, moisture present in plant, plant growth rate, chlorophyll SPAD value, photosynthetic efficiency, and crude protein in leaves are suppressed by applying C. album extract (25% w/v). It is concluded from this study that C. album has biologically a unique entity as an allelopathic plant. Its presence in the field crop may cause loss of economic yield up to 15 to 45 %. So, more extensive studies are required to explore the allelopathic potential responsible for inhibitory effects on seed germination, plant growth and development and economic yield with its management.</p> Iqtidar Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 CONTROL OF KHAPRA BEETLE BY LEAF EXTRACT OF Melia azedarach AND IDENTIFICATION OF POSSIBLE INSECTICIDAL COMPOUNDS THROUGH GC-MS ANALYSIS <p>The leaf extract of <em>Melia azedarach</em> was obtained by soaking plant material in ethanol for one week and its toxic effect was assessed on the third instar larvae of <em>Trogoderma granarium</em>. Four concentrations (2, 4, 6 and 8 µL mL<sup>-1</sup> acetone) were applied through contact method in Petri plates. Mortality was recorded after 12, 24 and 36 h. All the concentrations showed toxic effects against the larvae to variable extents. The highest mortality i.e. 72% was recorded at 8 µL mL<sup>-1</sup> acetone concentration after 36 h incubation period. At the same concentration, the mortality was 61.67% and 48.34% after 24 and 12 h, respectively. Minimum mortality (23.33%) was observed at 2 µL mL <sup>-1</sup> acetone concentration after 12 h. GC-MS analysis of ethanolic leaf extract of parthenium revealed the phytol as the predominant compound with 72.25% peak area. Other compounds were 2(4H)-benzofuranone, 5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl- (6.30%), 1-(3,6,6-trimethyl-1,6,7,7a-tetrahydrocyclopenta[c]pyran-1-yl)ethanone&nbsp; (6.11%), methyl stearate (4.60%), (+/-)-phytone (4.38%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (3.24%), and hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (3.12%). It is concluded that an 8 µL mL<sup>-1</sup> acetone concentration of leaf extract of <em>M. azedarach </em>can kill up to 72% larvae of <em>T. granarium </em>in 36 hours.</p> Shahbaz Ahmad, Rabia Zafar, Iqra Haider Khan, Arshad Javaid, Mubashar Iqbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 IN VITRO GERMINATION AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF PARTHENIUM WEED TO CHROMIUM (VI) STRESS <p>Parthenium (<em>Parthenium hysterophorus</em> L.) is an exotic weed that has spread in different parts of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Kashmir at an alarming extent and is now threatening natural vegetations and ecosystems. In the present study, laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effect of heavy metal ion Cr(VI) on germination and root/shoot growth of parthenium. Five concentrations of the metal ion <em>viz.</em> 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 ppm were used in the experiment. A gradual decline in germination and growth of seedlings was recorded with the increase in metallic ion concentration. Lower concentrations <em>viz.</em> 10, 20 and 40 ppm, reduced seed germination by 11, 15 and 37% over control, respectively. Likewise, 10, 20 and 40 ppm metal solution reduced shoot length by 35, 67 and 93%, root length by 69, 93 and 95%, and plant dry biomass by 47, 69 and 97% over control, respectively. An 80 ppm solution of Cr(VI) completely arrested the germination. This study concludes that parthenium is highly susceptible to Cr(VI) stress where an 80 ppm solution of these metallic ions can completely stop germination of parthenium seeds.</p> Arshad Javaid, Iqra Haider Khan, Aneela Anwar, Shahbaz Ahmad, Farman Ahmad Chaudhury ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 MEDICINAL PLANTS AND VACCINATIONS USED AGAINST COVID-19: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW <p>The newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has deteriorated the global order economically, socially and politically. As an emergency of global concern, the disease continuously spread havoc with its dreadful health manifestations with no regard for any race, religion and region. The mortality rates in different countries are surprisingly variable and there is debate about population-wise differential response to virus. Different countries have imposed lock-down to reduce the spread of virus; however, the positive outcomes of lock-down in terms of reducing mortality rate and transmission of virus are still questioned. Further, public accusations and debate of world powers regarding the origin of virus has created regional hate sentiments and political chaos which could result is serious repercussions following miscalculation of actual facts. Scientific communities are struggling to cope with the disease by developing potential vaccines against the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and were testing the already marketed drugs against this coronavirus. Therefore, several extracts from medicinal plants and various vaccinations have been used against Covid-19. This review highlights the origin, virulence, vaccination but most importantly the plants extracts used against the causative agent of COVID-19.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Amir Muhammad Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 UTILIZING WEEDS AS A SOURCE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER FOR IMPROVING OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) YIELD ATTRIBUTES <p>Utilizing weeds as a source of organic fertilizers greatly contribute to the vegetables production, particularly in organic farming. This study aimed to explore the potential of weeds as organic fertilizers in okra crop. The hypothesis was that it could effectively substitute synthetic fertilizers and be integrated into ecological farming. A pot experiment was carried out during kharif season (2020) at district Charsadda (34° 14' 18.67'' N, 71° 43' 28.12'' E), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Aqueous extracts (250 ml) from 10 different weeds were prepared and Tape water was considered as control for comparison. The experiment was implemented in completely randomized design (CRD) replicated four times having 11 treatments viz; T1 (<em>Parthenium hysterophorus</em>), T2 (<em>Urtica dioca</em>), T3 (<em>Convolvulos arvensis</em>); T4 (<em>Taraxicum officinale</em>), T5 (<em>Euphorbia helioscopia</em>), T6 (<em>Cynodon dactylon</em>), T7 (<em>Cyperus rotunus</em>), T8 (<em>Cannabis sativa</em>), T9 (<em>Silybum marianum</em>) T10 (<em>Rumex crispus</em>), T11 Tape water (control). Aqueous extract of each weed was applied to polythene bags containing 4 kg soil. Okra seeds of ‘Sabz Pari’ variety were sowed in polythene bags during April 2021. The results indicated that <em>E</em>. <em>helioscopia</em> and <em>C</em>.<em> arvensis</em> increased plant height of okra by 45% and 46% as compared to tape water. <em>R. crispus</em> and <em>C. sativa</em> increase number of leaves by 52% and <em>U</em>. <em>dioica</em> by 50%. Moreover, <em>U. dioica</em> increased number of pods plant<sup>-1</sup> by 19%, 28% and 36% as compared to tape water, <em>C</em>. <em>rotundus</em> and <em>C</em>. <em>arvensis</em> respectively. Similarly, <em>U</em>. <em>dioica</em> increase pod length by 30% and 34% compared to tap water and <em>C</em>. <em>arvensis </em>respectively and increased pod weight by 42%, 48% and 53% compared to Tap water, <em>C. arvensis</em> and <em>C. rotundus</em> respectively. Consequently, the effect of <em>U</em>. <em>dioca</em> was significant on increasing okra growth attributes and yield. The results of present study contribute considerably to new knowledge on weeds-based organic fertilizer. Furthermore, field trials are needed to evaluate weeds aqueous extract as a source of organic manure in okra at different ecological zones.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Organic farming, Stinging nettle, weeds-based fertilizer, weeds utilization, etc.</p> Abdus Samad, Muhammad Azim Khan, Muhammad Fawad, Muhammad Sadiq ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTS OF WEED ALLELOPATHY AGAINST MAIZE (Zea mays L.) VARIETIES <p>A lab experiment was conducted at Weed Science Research Laboratory, The University of Agriculture Peshawar.&nbsp; The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized having two factors.&nbsp; Factor “A” was maize varieties including (Burhan, Jalal and Azam) while,&nbsp; factor “B” was different weed water extracts i.e. <em>Trianthema portulacastrum</em>, <em>Xanthium strumarium</em>, <em>Convolvulus arvensis</em> and Distill water treatment was also included for comparison.&nbsp; The results showed that nearly all weeds water extracts significantly affect all the studied parameters of maize varieties. The result revealed that <em>T. portulacastrum</em> showed the most toxic effect against all maize varieties as it permit only 76.66% of maize seed to germinate. While among maize varieties Azam showed high resistance toward the allelopathy of studied weed species and gave 97.50% germination. Maize variety Jalal found susceptible to the phytotoxicity of the studied weeds. As <em>T. portulacastrum</em> declared the most problematic weed of maize. Hence it was recommended that proper measures to be taken for the effective control of <em>T. portulacastrum</em> weed to secure the maximum production of maize in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.</p> Amir Muhammad Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITY OF Asphodelus tenuifolius ON THE MANAGEMENT OF Meloidogyne javanica IN TOMATOES UNDER LABORATORY AND GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS Rifat Ali, Ishrat Naz, Aisha Khan, Muhammad Numan, Ijaz Ahmad, Mehran Khan, Shahab Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ECO-FRIENDLY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY AGAINST FUSARIUM WILT OF TOMATO CAUSED BY Fusarium oxysporum f. sp lycopersici (SACC.) <p>Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by <em>Fusarium oxysporum f. sp lycopersici </em>(Sacc.), is most devasting disease of tomato that cause productive and quality losses. Plant extracts have antimicrobial potential properties by decreasing the severity of various phytopathogen. The present study investigated the effect of various concentrations of garlic aqueous extract against Fusarium wilt of tomato. The target causal agent was isolated from infected tomato stems and leaves, collected from newly merged district Mohmand during May/June 2019. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments replicated eight times under standard condition in plant pathology laboratory, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during June-September 2019. The tested garlic aqueous extract concentrations were 5ml, 10ml, 15ml and 20ml in per liter of media. Results revealed that highest mycelial growth inhibition was found in higher concentrations of garlic extract in the plates (20ml/litre) followed by 15ml, 10ml and 5ml/ liter of media after twelve days which was significantly (P&lt;0.05) different from the mycelial growth recorded in control plates. Similarly, biomass of the mycelia was significantly (P&lt;0.05) reduced as compared the control treatment. It is concluded that the present research findings will be helpful in management of Fusarium wilt of tomato in the field. Furthermore, it is suggested to conduct an experiment to prepare garlic extracts under more sophisticated techniques to enhance its efficacy and to determine the bio-active compounds in the garlic against the disease.</p> Shahab khan, Rizwan Khan, Shaukat Hussain, Asad Zaman, Kashif Ahmad, Rifat Ali, Naseerud Din, Muhammad Fawad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EXPLORING THE ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF WILD RADISH (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) ON TURNIP (Brassica rapa subsp. Rapa) <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><em>The present study was designed to investigate the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of wild radish on seed germination and seedling growth of turnip. The laboratory experiment was performed in the Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, the University of Sargodha in 2021. The experiment was placed out in a CRD arrangement having four replicates Different concentrations of aqueous extract of wild radish (0.0 %, 3.0 %, 6%, 9.0% and 12.0 %) were applied on ten seed of tested turnip vegetable. Data regarding emergence and seedling growth of turnip. It was observed from this study that maximum emergence percentage (91.00 %), shoot length (6.10 cm), root length (7.13 cm), fresh biomass (1.43 g), dry biomass (0.48 g) and minimum time to start emergence (2.86 days), &nbsp;mean emergence time ( 8.24 days), time to complete 50% emergence (4.10 days) was observed under control while minimum emergence percentage (20.00 %), shoot length (1.84 cm), root length (1.59 cm), fresh biomass (0.21 g), dry biomass(0.07) and maximum time to start emergence (6.19 days), mean emergence time (21.26 &nbsp;days), time complete 50% emergence (10.93 &nbsp;days) was observed with 12.0% aqueous extract concentration wild radish. The results revealed that wild radish extract put destructive effects on the emergence and seedling development of tested vegetables. It was observed that inhibit tory effect depends on the level of concentration. Therefore, it can be used as a bioherbicide to manage weeds without polluting the environment.</em></p> <p>Keywords: Allelopathy, bioherbicide, emergence, seedling growth and environment.</p> Bilal Ahmad Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000